When Somaliland and Somali joined, there were no archival data about Somali population. Consequently, this forced Somali people to measure the population of Somali clans on the bases of land they reside. This wrong population measurement completely ignores the power of population density. Indicative example is territorial and population comparison of Canada and Japan. Canada; the second largest country of the world has 9,093,507km2 with population of 37,164,201. This makes its population density 4.1 per km2. While Japan with 377,835km2 has a population 127,736,835km2 which makes its population density 338 per km2. Acting on this point the Somali political champion began 1960. It began as intra-Somali political rivalries. Intra-Somali political activities began as Somali clans’ strife for power and public assets. The southern Somali clans led by Darod and Hawiye tried to dominate northern Somali clans led by Dir particularly Issak. All of sudden, most privileged seats including the president, prime minster, the speaker of the parliament, the head of the supreme court, military and police generals, the head of national security service, all the ministers and all tertiary seats including director generals and heads of agencies. When Mohamed Hajji Ibrahim Igal began bravery counter moves against these grave injustices, southern Somali politicians began to divide the unity of exploited Somaliland people. Firstly, they earned the support of Somaliland Hartis by tribal cause and the support of Gadabursi by giving the deputy prime-minister and false promises which still remained unfulfilled till the fall of the government in 1991. The ministers led by Igal refrained the exploiting somalism and resigned from the cabinets. Nevertheless, government manipulated and took mediocre-yes man ministers in the restive clan and took them as substitute of these who resigned. When the resignation of the ministers fell short to get response, the people of Somaliland refused to ratify the first constitutional draft, which was deficient, numerous important dimensions and had severe loopholes. In the same way, the government ignored this anger-showing signal and continued to utilize the rejected constitution. The highly trained military officers including Hasan kayd walanwal, Abdulahi Kongo, Mohamed warsame Ilka-ase, Daud,Awil were denied their exclusive right to take the command of the newly created military army. The feeling of resentment of these officers was in dormancy. When it came apparent for them that the vast majority of Somaliland people withdrew morally from the exploitive unification, they tried to restore Somaliland independence through coup in 1961 only one year from the birthday of the impulsively born state.
Haphazard preparation and underestimation of the opponent power (Government) aborted the revolution. Grave injustice and substantial partiality led Somaliland people to become fed-up about the unification. Time after time, the corrupt government of 1960-1969 was inclining to incapacity and internal chaos. The British Somaliland people showed allergic about the lack of government progress and the critical political and economic exploitation that the Italian Somaliland people inflicted to them.
Whatever, some changes occurred to south-dominated politics of Somalia, due to his farsightedness, Mr.Igal, became smart and made use of the internal conflicts among the southern politician whom were confused by the power share abundance. As the first term of Adan Abdulah Osman(Adan Ade) finished, next elections knocked the door. Competing politicians for the presidency were the acting president at time, Adan Ade and his Prime Minister Abdulrshid Ali Sharmarke. Adan Ade nominated Abdulrisaq H.Husein for his prime minister while Abdulrashid Ali Sharmarke nominated Igal as his prime minster. Abdulrashid and Igal walked over Adan Ade and Abdulrisaq in the election of 1965. This victory became the vehicle which brought very first Somaliland politician in the second most powerful seat in Somalia. Although the gain of the second most powerful seat pulled one point of the justice clock hand towards the equity point. The people of Italian Somaliland responded to take all power again 1969 when Mohamed Siyad Barre took the power through military coup. The communist military regime took some strides towards political, economic, and social developments concentrated in the southern parts of the country. Factories governmental agencies and all foreign direct and portfolio investments were confined in the south. Governmental buildings were highly built in the southern cities. Paved roads were in the south. Infrastructures such as bridges and paved roads were hugely concentrated in the south. While everything was like that Barre’s regime took fetal step towards political melancholy. The destructive nationalism dragged the country to odd position of provocatively fighting with the neighbors like Ethiopia and Kenya. Arrogantly, Barre’s regime began to prepare to fight with Ethiopia. When the International Community foresaw the aggressive position of Somalia, in which it’s military play hide and seek game in Ethiopia, they sent many warning signals to stop Somalia to invade parts of Ethiopia. However, Barre’s regime ignored warnings from the International Community and declared full-scale war with Ethiopia. At that time Barre’s regime set its major political goal to get territorial expansion. By the same time major cities of the country had no water pipelines, dependable electricity, illiteracy was high, infant mortality was extremely far above the ground and daily incomes of Somali people both in the rural and urban settlements were far below the poverty line. Extraordinary unemployment was lasting. At the same time as the citizens under its control were starving substantial part of the government budget were devoted for military armament and massive expenditure for ammunition procurements. Instead of promoting the living standards of its citizens and pull the lives of its people from the impoverishment and extreme poverty, Barre’s government put incalculable energy for building the military personnel and procurement of different ammunitions like armored, infantry, and artillery facilities. The military buildup led Barre’s regime to unjustifiable temptation to attack Ethiopia. Like the devil action of 1964 in which Somalia took aggressive war of invading parts of Ethiopia and Kenya. The wars of 1964 and 1977 with Ethiopia claimed huge lives, assets, and private properties. It also destroyed interdependence, cooperation of collective security among the two countries, and inclusive economic and social upward mobility for all the countries in the region. Destructive nationalism of Somalia from 1960-1991 became the sparkplug of endless hostilities and negative competition among the countries in the region.
The luxurious lives with infinite freedom, prosperity, harmony, fulfilling, and promising future were proved null by the deeply atrocities and genocides. The rights which some Somali clans receive were incalculable while the rights others receive were near zero level. This apparent inequality came up with up grave anger and resistance from the exploited clans.
All of sudden, political conflicts erupted from their latent pimples like a molten volcanic emission. Civil war began when Somali National Movement (SNM) was announced in London 1981. SNM became the greatest demolisher to Barre’s government. The resistance from SNM attracted a disproportionate carnage and destruction of public and private properties of northern clans in the ex-Republic of Somalia and the most badly treated clan was Issak.
By the same time, the government violence towards the restive clan was intensified. Particularly the Issak clan encountered more than 99% of that organized murder and collective punishment.
Among the hardest ones was deliberate genocide and nationalization of personal properties. When the hostility between the government and the northerners intensified, the government began unjustifiable brutalities against them. Killing, torture, rape, pillage, and other countless cruelties was under taken.
In 1988, Barre’s government did the exhibition of October (the coup day) and added the corpses of SNM militiamen in the parade. This amoral degradation of the innocent citizens and humanity as whole is a sign for the depth of brutalities against innocent civilians. During the conflict when the fighting between SNM militia and the government intensified brutalities reached unacceptable level in which human senses could not tolerate. When the government found hard to defeat the SNM forces, it decided to punish innocent civilians without any mentionable crimes they do. National security service agents compose false accusations against Hargeise, Buruo, Erigavo, Berbera, and Gabiley. In reference, the government began to imprison Somaliland national merchants, politicians, and educators. The death of the punishments reached degree beyond human thoughts. Resident of Hargeise, Buruo, Erigavo, Berbera, and Gabiley began to flee from their homes to the countryside around these cities and Ethiopia. Of these who fled to the suburbs of the cities became the subject of spiteful attacks from Somali bombers and jets. The fighting intensified and the government killed civilians and indiscriminately destroyed Somaliland cities. For instance, Hargeise was ruined in an unacceptable manner. Three out of four of the buildings were destroyed to the foundation level. You could see Hargeise bungalows’ and Semi-dethatched houses changed instantaneously into cemeteries. The remnant dusts from the destruction still haunt the streets of Somaliland capital. If you walk several meters in Hargeise, your shining shoes quickly change into dusty one because the sand mixed with old cement become ugly coat to your shoes. The private assets looted from the citizens of Hargeise, Buruo, Berbera, Gabiley can be estimated over billion dollars. More than two and half million people fled from these towns and left valuable assets behind.
The most violent incident was Aljazeera genocide. It was 26th anniversary of Aljazeera genocide. Omar Muse Mire was narrating the ghastly slaughter that happened in Mogadisho.This horrific massacre occurred in July 17, 1989. Somali armed forces gathered 47 individuals with different ages from their homes. Without any legal process, the 47 individuals had been directly transported to Aljazeera coast and were executed by the Somali armed forces and then buried in mass grave in this coast. Had Omar Muse Mire not survived from this ruthless genocide, this shocking genocide would have been out of world’s notice.
Another cruel act of violence happened Berbera. As Jose Baraybar mentioned, Somali armed forces actions in Berbera claimed huge lives of innocent civilians. At least five hundred individuals were murdered in Berbera, which was not object of an SNM attack or the scene of conflict. 500 individuals, and perhaps many more Issak men were systematically rounded up and murdered, mainly by having their throats cut, and then buried in mass graves, during the four month following the intensification of the conflict, apparently solely because they were Issak.
Amid this political doom of 1960-1991, all Somaliland cities had no the most important infrastructures and utilities like paved roads, bridges, and reliable town plan, strong electricity, reliable water supply, and telecommunications. Although all Somaliland settlements hired extreme backwardness from the rule of ex-Republic of Somalia, hardest hit areas was Awdal region. The most politically disadvantaged clan that Somali government in 1960-1991 served against its interest was Gadabursi. Share from the civil servants, the armed personnel, the infrastructures and the useful projects that Gadabursi used to receive from Somalia were extremely marginal.
For instance, Gadabursi had only one Military General while Arabs who are not Somali nationals had five Generals in the armed forces. Gadabursi also had one minister while smaller clans had several key ministers. Borama, which is considered to be among the four largest Somali cities was totally neglected and ignored. There were no town plans. Streets are too narrow for the use of traffic and people. No avenues appropriate for different functions of city markets. There were no utilities necessary for the life of the citizens no electricity, no water pipelines, no telephones. Let along to have these necessary utilities, the governmental buildings built during 1960-1991 were no more than ten houses. The buildings hired from British rule were more than the buildings built by Somali government for public functions and propose. Two square meters chamber near Borama municipality as Traffic Police headquarter show clear picture about the intentional sabotage of the city growth. When an overwhelming number of Borama students outnumbered the capacity of British built Amoud Secondary School and it became compulsory for the students to have extra classrooms, Borama residents asked for the government to build new secondary school for the town. Despite the massive governmental budget and massive foreign debt and grants the government receives, the government answer for Borama request was negative. For that reason, Borama residents began to build Sh:Ali Jawhar secondary school without any governmental help. The women who partook building task and carried heavy stones suffered dangerous miscarriages.
To appease Somali Salvation Democratic Front (SSDF) led by Abdullah Yusuf, the Somali road project which continuous around Kalabaydh was illegally shifted to Gorowe-Bosaso road project, which was not in the plan of Somali road corridor from Kismayo to Zaila. If there was no road project shifting, the paved corridor would reach Zaila before 1987 and the life of Awdal region would be better. Zaila and Lugyaha would not be victims trapped behind Golis Mountains.
Another atrocity inflicted to the Awdalites was the ruthless assassination of Colonel Farah Awale Bustale who treated the ruling clan as an equal citizen and used to stand up for the rights of his people. Another deliberate evil action inflicted to the Awdalites was the harsh crimes committed by the military and police commanders in Awdal. Understandable example was Bashirdhere. Bashidhare committed unforgiving crimes in Awdal region. This man was an arrogant Anti Aircraft Artillery commander who did many beyond the pale crimes in Awdal region. Bashirdhere neglected his responsibility to protect the city from Mungistu air raid. Because of his severe negligence, the gunners of Anti Aircraft Artillery weapons went to the downtown to have morning Khat chewing session (Jabane) when Mingusto bombers raided Borama elementary school and the city as whole. That raid left the largest human casualties Somali city ever encountered. Bashirdhere who did this great mistake got no punishment as replacement for he was promoted.
Another great sabotage for the socio-economic growth of Awdalites was the dislocation of Awdal capital from Borama to Baki. This move implanted fear into the people, particularly; merchants became reluctant to invest the growth of the city because they were afraid of the rapid dislocation.
The strongest point, which verified Barre’s government, was serving against the interest of Gadabursi same as the Issak’s one was the intentional positioning of refugees from the Somali settlements in Ethiopia. We had three great refugee camps in Awdal. One was in Darbihore near Harirad, another was in Daraymaine near Borama, and another one was in Dila. With help of the government, those refugees began to argue the ownership of farms and grazing lands with local residents and quickened deforestation and desertification.
Most apparent example is the insistent desire which the people of the southern part of the ex-republic of Somalia want to exploit the Somaliland people particularly the Awdalites is that the political representative shares Awdalites have in the dummy run like so called “ federal government “ of Somalia are nowhere near the political shares which Awdalites have in Somaliland. In the legislature department of the Federal Government, nine representatives were given to Gadabursi and the sum of the parliament is 275. This made Gadabursi representatives to be 3%. Awdalites get only minister in more than 70 ministerial positions. These tiny shares tend Gadabursi political shares in the executive branch of the federal government to be 1.5%.
In contrast, the legislature representative of Gadabursi in Somaliland is 16% while executive representative is 14%. This precise comparison between political shares Gadabursi have in the rehearsal like Federal Government and Somaliland is indicator showing that Gadabursi belong to Somaliland.
In the livelihood dimension, the level of hunger and general destitution Somaliland people especially Awdalites experience during 1960-1991 can be seen from the long quos and lines in front of Borama cereal and grain griddling machines (Makiinad Hadhuudh). The wide spread hunger, unemployment, and sometimes starvation coerced many people to steal the griddled cereals and grains to feed their families and children. The massive cereal and grain powders coerced griddling machine owners to employ strong internal control. This was to make small cards marked numbers. As result, owners used to make two cards for each member. For example, 1,1 2,2 3,3 4,4 and so on. One number was used to attach to the plastic packs contain cereals and grains with small pine and the other copy was given to the owner of the pack to prevent hunger-created theft.
With all those gruesome atrocities and exploitations inflicted to the Somaliland people, the very first government after Barre in 1991 began to ignore the leaders of SNM to have their say about the future of the country. Without any regard for SNM, the front that took the greatest role for government destruction, they quickly built government in Djibouti. Ali Mahdi from Hawiye clan and Omar Arte Qalib who was not a member of the victorious SNM headed this government. This unjustifiable contempt became inescapable proof that the people of the southern Somalia are not ready to redeem the faults they did before. Suddenly war broke out between Mohamed Farah Aydid and Ali Mahdi. Almost immediately, Mogadishu changed into violent ground. The turmoil in Mogadishu gave Somaliland people not find stable government to talk with and later coerced Somaliland people to announce their independence and to resume their rightful self-determination because there was severe turmoil in Mogadishu and Somaliland could not have a political bargain about independence with southern Somalis.
At Buruo, destiny of previous Somali republic changed into its original form. Two separate states, Somaliland and Somalia. Despite the massive destruction and deep hostilities created by Somalia among Somaliland people during its decaying years, Somaliland elders, educators, politicians, and Military Officers agreed to break away from imprudently built Somali republic. Somaliland independence was announced at Buruo in May 18, 1991.Abdirahman Mahmud Ali (Tur) became the very first Somaliland president. However, the adaptation of instability and turmoil, which was the common character in the warring years, hindered his commitments to stop the chaos. Conflicts broke out in Berbera, Erigavo, and Hargeise. To take proactive moves against Deeping disputes, wise sultans and educators decided to hold conference in Borama. This sacred conference became the spine of Somaliland existence. In this conference, a complete government, which consist three constitutional houses was built. Bicameral House of representatives, Judiciary House and Executive House headed by masterful president, Mohamed Hajji Ibrahim Igal, who had a reliable aptitude and excellence to speed up recovery from the years of turmoil and political hardship. Mr. Igal stepped several important moves to settle the dire instability. He tried to create government structure and its functional improvements. He made significant moves to anchor the depth of stability by elimination of hostility remnants among the Somaliland clans. He also tried to orchestrate governance with its well-functioning armies. As well, he tried to improve taxation and real governance. The following points could Igal’s prime moves towards developments and statehood
- Demobilized militia and disarmed them
- Combined militia from different clans to create national army
- Printed Somaliland currency
- Set the plan towards popular democracy
- Drafted Somaliland constitution
- Held nationwide referendum in 2000 to ratify the constitution
- Planed Somaliland multiparty system
- Established UDUB the very first democratic party
- Rooted international ties
The period, which became the greatest era in politics, was Rayal’s period in which all things turned to the right way. He developed all the sectors of the country in remarkable way because democracy gets greatest momentum during this period. The prudent president employed the planed strategy of his predecessor. President Dahir Rayale Kahin implemented the very first Somaliland elections. The far-sighted president implemented local election in 2002, presidential election in 2003, and parliamentary election in 2005. All these triumphant phase of democracy occurred during his rule. The dependable president also built the army strength and stepped several mentionable developmental moves. The key ones are
- Made Somaliland passport
- Developmental tax(D-tax) in Sanag and Sool
- Made territorial integrity by expansion of the governance by peaceful means
- Expansion of Somaliland TVs and Radio
- Implemented Water project in Borama
- Removed livestock sanctions by bringing Aljabiri in the arena(Arab Billionaire)
- Enhanced relationships with the neighboring countries(Ethiopia, Kenya, Djibouti)
- Implemented first nationwide registration
- Strengthen international ties
Turning point of Somaliland development is a period of Ahmed Mohamed Mahmud (Silanyo). The insightful president empowered Somaliland economy, peace and democracy. He enhanced the economy of the country by taking consistent measures to strengthen the economic growth. The president along with his wisely selected cabinet prepared efficient strategy to stop the progress of the wide spread corruption which was pulling the economy down as same as the gravity pulls down upwardly flying space shuttle. Mr.Silanyo won partial elimination of the recurring corruption. If he was elected another term for presidency 85% of the corruption would be eliminated. The brilliant president anchored the roots of the peace. It is beyond question that Mr.Silanyo carefully handled the recurrent tribal based conflicts in Sool and Sanag. President Silanyo kept walking through rigorous difficulties to settle conflicts in those regions. At last, he became dependable lifeboat for strictly drowning residents in Sool and Sanag. President Silanyo empathically solved the conflict and became reliable extinguisher that put out the flaming hostility and antagonism. The admired president also strengthened roots of democracy. With razor-thin majority, he is the man who accepted Rayal’s victory. President Silanyo also exposed exceptional character different from African presidents and leaders. He is the man who dispensed the willingness of second term presidential candidacy and handed candidacy to his party successor Muse Bihi Abddi. The glorious president is being ruling the country with careful political handle. He will vacate presidency at time Somaliland people enjoy to learn from his golden deeds and legacy.
- Hargeise and Berbera airports rehabilitated
- Started project to explore oil reserve(Genel Energy&Sterling)
- 100% salary increase for the public employees
- Dramatic increase of the budget
- Fixed asset registration
- 28 million dollar water project is being implemented in Hargeise
- Made military rank(Lieutenants, Colonels, and Generals)
- Democracy achieved serenity, re-opened multiparty competition
- Primary(elementary and intermediates) education fees freed
- Lowered the required age of political participation for the local elections candidates
- 1,000&5,000 Somaliland shilling notes printed
- Borama-Dila road project completed
- Erigavo road project started
- Somaliland development fund created
- Berbera port enhanced and expanded(DP world)
- 215 internally displaced house built near Borama airport to provide free homes for the poor and the marginalized
Because of these complementary works done by Somaliland presidents and their governments, all of sudden, the country from Zaila to Lasanod recovered from the grave exploitation people encountered during 1960-1991.
The sustained peace and committed policies of Somaliland to enhance economic welfare of its citizens can be seen from the growing prosperity of Awdalites and you can see numerous families used to buy Pascrice rice from food stores and gourmets enjoying delicious food in the well-ventilated hotels (Ambassador Hotel, Rays Hotel, and Mansoor Hotel). From 1960-1991, you could not see satellite dishes on Borama houses and families had no possession of videos. The only thing you could see at time was very little individuals who own radios. Less than 3% of the population in Awdal region had radios. Today, you can see immense number of houses own TVs and videos.
Climbing up the ladder of economic growth and material prosperity among the locals could be an indicator of the growth. Both the ownership of private non-commercial and commercial vehicles increased dramatically. The congested highways and the traffic jams in Borama and Hargeise are obvious sign of vastly growing prosperity in Somaliland.
Another vivid example is the vast increase of Borama water quantity and quality. Water supply of Borama was exceptionally small and contaminated before Somaliland birth. The hardship of bringing water from several kilometers away valleys in the eastern side of the city like Dhamug and Daraimaine and the ones from bounds in Seraha(Borama meadow) reminds me how scarce water was. At that time, daily per capita water supply of Borama residents were less than 4 liters.
Worse yet, water from bounds and wills were severely contaminated and used to lead Borama residents to encounter severe communicable deceases range from amoebic dysentery to cholera, which claimed tremendous number of children, young adults, and senior citizens. As soon as SHABA was established per capita daily water supply jump from 4 liters to somewhere above 30 liters. SHABA produces 3,600,000 liters daily for 110,000 people in Borama. The excellence and the hard work of SHABA enabled Borama residents to get eight times more liters of water than they were used to receive before. Efficiency of SHABA moved water supply from zero to acceptable level.
Somaliland has significant resources, which contains tremendous number of livestock (Cattle, Camel, Sheep, and Goats). It has useful resource of Iron, Manganese, Coal and many other valuable minerals. Somaliland is moving to develop what is estimated to be highly important hydrocarbon reserves in the country.
Further, the economic growth of the country skyrocketed and many small industries appeared. These small industries covered the largest portions of the country demand. They produce different kinds of products and materials. Among the most vivid ones is Somaliland Beverage Industry (BSI). This small industry became the greatest investment in recent years that Somalilanders invest in the business sector. With the assistance of Coca-Cola Company, some devoted Somaliland nationals put hard currency at about 17milion U.S.D to cover Somaliland beverage. The other small industries, which surfaced the business sector, are Buruo soap powder industries that completely covered the bleaching needs of the country. Another business investment deserves to be mentioned are those that produce filtered mineral water. Among the remarkable ones are SAMSAM, BIYO SIXA, MAAXDA, SHIFO, MIINA, and XAYAAT. These factories promoted the supply of dependable mineral waters, which in turn elevated the consumption of healthy waters.
The prominent investment that deeply enhanced the standard of living, facilitated the connectivity, and improved relationships among Somaliland people are telecommunication business. These industries provide the cheapest telephones service for the nationals. Remarkable businesses in the telecommunication sector are TELESOM and SOMTEL. Beside their diligent service for the people to wide coverage telephones, they supplement a kind of electronic money known ZAAD and eDahab that simplified banking and business transactions.
Another notable business investment is SOMCABLE. This incomparable company brought the fastest and the most effective internet service in Somaliland. Before the emergence of SOMECABLE, using internet had been as difficult as climbing Mount Everest. The presence of SOMCABLE is beneficial for all Somaliland citizens because it eliminated sluggish internet service and the annoying waiting which bothered internet users. It also provides the cheapest and the most effective internet service for the people. The appearance of this useful company is the dawn of information explosion age for Somaliland people. Before the onset of SOMCABLE, using the internet was frustrating. Even if you have five dollars in your pocket, you were not sure to get your requirements from the internet. Now with existence of SOMCABLE you can enjoy internet usage while you have only twenty-five cents in your pocket
In the progress dimension, Somaliland government completed more than 30 kilometers between Borama and Dila and 10 paved highway roads in Borama. The government also built 215 internally displaced homes for the poor while Somali government from 1960-1991 which had international recognition and had access to borrow money from the IMF, International Banks, and IGOs failed to lay only one kilometer of paved road in the region.
We met better fate in Somaliland then what we had met in Somali before. We achieved the top of Somaliland government. President Dahir Rayale won presidency in 2003. This historic victory proved that Somaliland people passed the level of tribal discrimination. The most effective pipeline system for water supply was implemented in Borama. This effective project promoted water supply for the locals and tended Borama citizens to find abundant water.
President Igal enthusiastically supported the initiative in which somalilanders want to start Amoud University, the very first university in Somaliland. Amoud University promoted educational and economic achievements of the region. Would Somalia allow and support university headquartered in Borama? Even the donkey would answer no!
The roads that Somali government ignored to build were restarted. Thirty-kilometer of Borama-Dila tarmac road was completed and Borama-Zaila paved road project will be implement after Buruo-Erigavo road project is finished. Two hundred fifteen internally displaced homes for the poor people were completely built near Borama airport. Once deserted cemetery like city with no able electricity, no medical centers, and no economic activities got 24 hours electricity generated by Borama Power Station (BPS). This company provides 75% of the electricity supply and it is the most effective and most industrious electricity company in the region.
The mistreated city changed now into heaven that accommodates university students from all parts of Somaliland and Somalia. Borama also became the center of reliable hospitals, which attract patients from all Somali settlements. For instance, the case of fistula, once deserted city without signs to claim city title, now receives medical patients from all parts of the ex-republic of Somalia. Borama receives fistula patients from Mogadishu once the capital of the ex-republic of Somalia. Fistula is deadly anatomical complication that affected the reproductive organs of the females. This dangerous complication recently surfaced to be among the recurring complications which numerous mothers in the Somali speaking community stager under its hazardous effect. This lethal complication intertwines the end of the excretory path (Anus) and the reproductive organ (Vagina) of the affected females. Because of Somaliland fast development, Borama earned and secured a status to host medical patients which Mogadishu hospitals and doctors failed to solve.
Consequently, among the successful operations and medications they do, the best hospital to solve such like this unkind complication is AlAAE hospital, which is among the most sophisticated hospitals in the Horn of Africa. Because of Somaliland deeply anchored peace and fast economic growth, the most talented doctors remained to stay in Borama, Hargeise, and Buruo. If Somaliland people do not retain their self-worth, these doctors would not be their current location and migrate to Mogadishu and this could detract the growth of the Somaliland cities.
Arbitrating Somalia and Somaliland International Community should consider undignified deeds of Somalia and the noble performance of Somaliland.
The people of southern part of the ex-republic of Somalia created sea-piracy, which is a drastic problem in the Horn of Africa. It is a great threat to the international sea routes that transport the largest portion of international exchange of commodities and materials. Sea-piracy is nearly to blockade shipments and hugely increased shipping expenses. Since the beginning of this ailing piracy, numerous countries, companies, and even individuals were forced to lose incalculable amounts of money. Due to this horrible piracy, the world was forced to make Multinational Task Force to fight against this tragedy.
The unwillingness of the southern clans of the ex-republic of Somalia to partake world collective security and peaceful co-existence became the fueling factor that simplified for them to create this evil piracy. The heaven, which accommodates 100% of the sea-pirates is the southern part of the failed state of Somalia. Particularly it concentrated in Puntiland and Galmudug. With regard of the recurrently changing political climate of Somalia, the first makers of this deadly piracy were the warlords who were the ruling hand of southern parts of the ex-republic of Somalia. After the power of the warlord was eroded, the command center of the sea-piracy shifted to the corrupt leaders of TFG. Immense money generated from the sea piracy industry lured these corrupt leaders.
The counter argument saying that the motive behind this tragic sea piracy was preventing Somali sea from illegal fishing is completely false because extremely small segment of Somali community whether they reside in the coast or in the other parts of the country depend on fish as meat source. If someone goes to the coastal cities and villages of the ex-republic of Somalia, lamb, beef, and camel flesh will be the only available meat he/she must eat. While he/she is only few meters from the waters of Indian Ocean and red-sea, yearning delicious fish meat coerce him/her to buy canned Tuna fish from the local shops. Describing sea-piracy as a voluntary coast guard is a ridiculous justification composed by the pirates and their investors.
Equally wrong to say that these reckless sea-piracy are protecting dumping radio-active nuclear waste from the sea because pirates and their master minders are those who take dumping contracts from any group in exchange of money.
Contrary to that, Somaliland has no powerful coast guard and efficient naval facilities that enable it to take fast strides to combat with this deadly sea-piracy. Positive core of Somaliland existence, the will of its capable government and the determination of its people to cooperate global collective security enabled this still unrecognized country to make pirate attacks in its territorial waters and its coastline areas zero. Self-made Somaliland partook combating wicked sea piracy and won a complete avoidance of sea piracy in its territory. It also participated tirelessly for the imprisonment, identification of those who involve it and share information about sea-piracy with the rest of the word.
Making matters worse is horrors of human trafficking in the horn of Africa. After the demise of the ex-republic of Somalia, Bosaso became the center of human trafficking. Thousands of illegal migrants from different parts of the ex-republic of Somalia and Ethiopia took their way from Bosaso to Yemen. The migrants are extraordinarily loaded in small boats with bad conditions. In this way, thousands of people lost their lives through this deadly business. Ever since, human cargo business is highly profitable in Bosaso. Human cargo business is booming in Puntiland because it has clear admittance from the ruling elites of this autonomous region. In opposite, no single boat of human cargo was shipped from territorial waters of Somaliland during years of its existence.
Nastiest problem is terrorism, which is tragedy for all states in the world. The southern parts of the ex republic of Somalia became fertile land for the growth of terrorists seeds. Alshabab in Somalia became among the most dangerous terrorists organizations in the world. Alshabab and its bloody attacks could be an indicative example.
Gerisa university attacks in which suicidal Alshabab members entered the University and took a large number of students as hostages can be clear picture of Alshabab dangers. Alshabab members classified students into two camps, one camp for Muslim students, and the other for Christian students. Then, the amoral extremists began killing Christian students and spared Muslim ones. The cruel militants of Alshabab murdered 150 Christian students. This savage murder and many other grave ones including Kampala Cinema bombings in Uganda, West Corner Mall siege in Nairobi witness strong terrorist willingness to create hostilities among the world communities and how the southern people in the ex-republic of Somalia became one of the most efficient means which terrorists use to perpetuate their ruthlessness and their chaos-creating objectives.
Destructive nationalism appears in the names of Somali district zones. Ahmed Guray, warrior trained and indoctrinated to conquer the Hematic people in the Horn of Africa. By virtually related cause, Halane was also named after many Somali district zones including Borama, Buruo, Hargeise, Bosaso, and Mogadishu. Halene is regarded a devoted warrior in the war between Somalia and Ethiopia in 1964. Ethiopian armies killed him while he was trying to keep Somali flag erected in the middle of heavy war between Somalia and Ethiopia in Wajale. Somaliland people erase these two names from their hearts and forgot prejudices they previously maintained for Ethiopia. Somaliland people also changed these two names from their district zones. In Hargeise, Qule Adan replaced ‘Ahmed Guray School’ and “Halane School” was replaced by Yusuf Hajji Adan, in Borama the name of ‘Sheikh Makahil’ replaced ‘Halene’ district zone. Ahmed Guray district zone of Borama was also eliminated by splitting it into several small segments with deferent names. Sheikh Ali Jawhar annexed part of it and Shaib and Sanberia (the names of west and east district zones of Borama) absorbed the other part of it. Abandoning of these two names ‘Ahmed Guray’ and ‘Halane’ is real proof that Somaliland people withdraw from the destructive nationalism and the cancerous grudge that Somalis maintained for Ethiopia. Disappearance of these two names ‘Ahmed Guray’ and ‘Halene’, which are undisputable signs of aggressiveness, proves that Somaliland people refrained from hostilities, prejudice, and irrational guts to claim part of Ethiopia.
In contrast, the people of Mogadishu retained the hostile feelings towards the neighboring countries like Ethiopia and Kenya. For example, the greatest military training camp in Mogadishu was named after ‘Halene ‘The gruesome war of LUUQ 1996 in which Itihad extremists tried to invade parts of Ethiopia before the mighty forces of Ethiopia dismembered their assembly. Another vivid example is temptation of Mogadishu Islamic Courts to attack Ethiopia. The fast growth of Islamic Courts in Mogadishu and its willingness to disturb tranquility of Ethiopia, Kenya, and the Horn region as whole coerced Ethiopian forces to take proactive move to illuminate this imminent threat. Ethiopian forces attacked Islamic Courts that was on their way to invade Baydhabo, which was the base of weak Transitional Federal Government (TFG). At that time, Islamic Courts gained latent institutional and military growth during the era of warlord sectarian dominance. When the warlords of Mogadishu and its surroundings recognized the stiffness of the terrorist militia and found hard to confront with them, Mogadishu warlords began to unify their forces to fight with them but Islamic Courts walked over the unified militia of the warlords.
Shortly before they faced Ethiopian forces, Islamic courts leader declared that their militia would prey eidel Odha in Adisababa. Ethiopian force met with the terrorists’ militia, forced them to retreat, and later fled to the remote areas of the country. Frequent trials of the southern people of the ex-republic of Somalia to hurt Ethiopia and Kenya came in deferent forms.
1960-1991 the hostility towards Ethiopia and Kenya appeared as cancerous nationalism and recurrent trials to hurt the neighboring countries like the way it occurred in 1964 and in 1977. After the fall, hostility expressed as war-lordship, as Hussein Mohamed Farah Aydid tried to stab Ethiopia at the back during Ethiopo-Eretrian war in 1998. Aggression appeared as Al-Itihad LUQ war in1996 and as Islamic Courts in 2006 and remains today as Alshabab.
In the opposite direction, no single trial to hurt Ethiopia was involved by Somaliland people. Somaliland people and their careful governments stayed away to be robot machines used to destroy the joyful stability in the Horn of Africa. Guest what? Somaliland people admire Ethiopia for its being only independent African country before the arrival of the millennia leap forward and for its being only symbol of glorious civilization in the African continent.
Making recognition proposal stronger Somaliland has remarkable Gross National Product (GNP), which can occupy good position when ranked countries on the bases of their economic size because it has great per capita income when compared to many world countries. As James Reine stated, the per capita income of Somaliland is $350.Thus, the Gross National Product (GNP) of Somaliland country could be derived from its per capita income. If this amount multiplied to its population number which is 3.63 million people, Somaliland GNP be could be aproxmately1.3 billion dollar and when adjusted for the purchasing power parity it become about 5.2 billion dollar four times more than its un-adjusted one. Yearly adjusted Per Capita Income can be 5.2/0.00363=1433 that in turn makes the daily per capita income of Somaliland people to be $4.
Acting on those incomparable strengths Somaliland has what makes us wonder is that International Community paid attention to the calls from Tokelau and persistently do not take into account the calls from Somaliland. Tokelau has small territory estimated as 6.3km2. It has no farmable land and cannot produce any kind of cereal, vegetables’ and fruits to cover the consumption of its people. It has also no commercially valuable resource like highly valued minerals. Further, its population is less than two thousands and approximately is 1,396. This tiny island cannot generate enough economy to get well-functioning government. It cannot recruit enough armed force both military and police to keep the order and the stability. This island is twenty one thousand eight hundred times smaller than Somaliland. While everything is like that, United Nations became very audacious to the calls from this small island, which its financial survival depends on the aid provided by New Zealand. United Nations sponsored referendum was held in February 16, 2006. The votes that support its independence fell short of the two-thirds majority required independence under the terms of referendum.
Further, this small island is under the mandate of highly civilized people of New Zealand whom their political administration and economic situation, social upward mobility, equality, and justice are excellent and they never encountered subjugation and exploitation.
In the other side, many internationally recognized countries could be tiny when compared to Somaliland. International Community recognized Gilberto with territorial size of (6km2), Tavalan with (26km2), and Monaco with (1.95km2) and overlooked Somaliland country which has a reliable territorial size of 137,600 and enough population of 3.63 million people.
More to the point, African Union (AU) decided that boundaries of African country should be kept and accepted as they were during the rule of colonial powers. This set of guidelines led AU to recognize Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic as an independent state and refuse the illogic annexation of Western Sahrawi Republic by Morocco. Apparent reality is that the African Union (AU) refused merging of SADR by Morocco because Morocco was colony of France and SADR was a colony of Spain. Different colonizers of Morocco and SADR and their different independence dates can be legitimate factor allowing SADR independence from Morocco. This coerced African union to dismiss Morocco from the organization.
Similarly, Somaliland was a colony of Great Britain and Somalia was a colony of Italy. Somaliland took its independence from Great Britain in June 26, 1960 while Somalia took its independence from Italy in July 1, 1960. Making the point stronger, there are no other territories colonized by different colonizers in the African continent combined as one state apart from the ex-Republic of Somalia and Morocco. For the same reason, different colonizers of Somaliland and Somalia and their different independence dates are inevitable right which legally grantee Somaliland independence.
Can unification legality between Somaliland and Somalia be questioned? Yes, it can be questioned. During the unification, no roles were made for the union. Voluntary unification between the two countries in 1960 became short-lasting belief. Amid this period of no written document for the legal union, Somaliland people, particularly, the very first military trained officers who took their military courses in Great Britain including Hasan Kaydh Walanwal, Awil, Mohamed Waresme Ilka Ase, Daud, and Adbulhali Kongo tried to restore Somaliland independence 1961 soon after the unification. The short lasting believe brought by the drastic injustice shows you the weakness of unification legality between Somalia and Somaliland. More to the point, Somalilanders driven-coup was aborted and the coup leaders were imprisoned. During their trial, the court found no ground to criminalize the perpetrators whom was accused treason. Their British lawyer won to verdict them because there were no legitimate charter for the swift unification of Somaliland and Somalia. At last, the officers were pleaded not guilty and released.
Defending the unity of Somalia and Somaliland by taking the theme that the world is more inclined to unification rather than fragmentation is completely misleading. The skeptics of Somaliland independence always take the evolving European countries unification as example. To nullify this oversimplifying argument, effective unification and fragmentation is situational. Unification produce fruits when certain society is highly civilized and culturally prepared to form unified political unit as the way United States of America is. This greatness could come when the people have deep faith of equality, transparency, impartiality, and easy compatibility of different cultures, religions, languages, tribes, races, guts, and wishes. When people are error-prone and largely inclined to intolerance, conspiracy, inequality, and exploitation, and injustice, fragmentation could be better option. Great European empires fragmented to form different states. The splitting of Roman Empire into Spain and Portugal and Austro-Hungarian Empire into Austria, Hungary, and many other European countries produce the current European states. After the separation, each European country had been building its human, economic, social, cultural, and physical infrastructures. When development of each European country became granted and people became free from exploitation, intolerance, and the desire to exploit one another, higher level of organization and cooperation became necessary. Consequently, Europeans began gradual re-unification which still continuous. As the Europeans do, Somali people once became one state. Injustice and exploitation strained and destroyed their unity; war among Somali clans succeeded; two separate political entities one Somaliland and the other Somalia emerge. 1,000 years of separate development will be the next atmosphere. After millennium of solitude from Somalism, reunification will be reconsidered. Now, unification is impossible, havoc, and cataclysmic.
Heed, Somaliland people started divergent route from previously traveled dead end route and turned towards more productive, more secure, and more promising political route for its citizens. Thus, EGAD and the international community should be aware that the white star with five points in the center of the blue flag represent the ambition of unified five parts of Somali settlements including (Ethiopian zone five, Djibouti, NFD, Somalia, and Somaliland) is still alive while the black star with five points in the center of Somaliland tricolor flag witnessing the doom of that ambition. Which one of the two stars is telling the truth? The black star stands for the truth.
Overall, Atom has a nucleus in the center and the electrons move around it on their orbital lines. Same as the electrons in the Atom track ceaseless centripetal motion around the nucleus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter and the rest of the planets in our solar system run circular motion around the sun. This observable actuality is showing us that the smallest unit (Atom) which all the substances made of has identical arrangement with the universe we live in it. Another obvious reality is that the components of the Atom and the solar system such as electrons, protons, neutrons, Earth, Venus, and Mars have all spherical shapes. Consequently, other than square, rectangular, and triangular shapes, the favorite shape of the God (Allah) is the circular one. Earth, Moon, Sun, Planets, most fruits, cereals, and the Zygote have all spherical shapes. What the rounded objects and the centripetal motion became God’s favorite shape and motion type has great meaning that seems to be “whatever initiative somebody come up with whether its good or bad will directly or indirectly returns to that figure because human deeds also move in circular paths”.
Pay attention to, the move to recognize Somaliland independence will echo good emissions to the world political course because it will motivate good actions and discourage bad ones. This request is from Somaliland people. It is not towards air, water, and soil circling worlds. It is to our fire-circling world. Therefore, our fire-circling world should recognize Somaliland independence.
Farah Barkhad Nour